Source code for pennylane.vqe.vqe

# Copyright 2018-2021 Xanadu Quantum Technologies Inc.

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This submodule contains functionality for running Variational Quantum Eigensolver (VQE)
computations using PennyLane.
import warnings

# pylint: disable=too-many-arguments, too-few-public-methods
from import Sequence

import pennylane as qml
from pennylane import numpy as np

[docs]class ExpvalCost: """ Create a cost function that gives the expectation value of an input Hamiltonian. This cost function is useful for a range of problems including VQE and QAOA. .. warning:: ``ExpvalCost`` is deprecated. Instead, it is recommended to simply pass Hamiltonians to the :func:`~.expval` function inside QNodes. .. code-block:: python @qml.qnode(dev) def ansatz(params): some_qfunc(params) return qml.expval(Hamiltonian) In order to optimize the Hamiltonian evaluation taking into account commuting terms, use the ``grouping_type`` keyword in :class:`~.Hamiltonian`. Args: ansatz (callable): The ansatz for the circuit before the final measurement step. Note that the ansatz **must** have the following signature: .. code-block:: python ansatz(params, wires, **kwargs) where ``params`` are the trainable weights of the variational circuit, ``wires`` is the wires the circuit acts on, and ``kwargs`` are any additional keyword arguments that need to be passed to the template. hamiltonian (~.Hamiltonian): Hamiltonian operator whose expectation value should be measured device (Device, Sequence[Device]): Corresponding device(s) where the resulting cost function should be executed. This can either be a single device, or a list of devices of length matching the number of terms in the Hamiltonian. interface (str, None): Which interface to use. This affects the types of objects that can be passed to/returned to the cost function. Supports all interfaces supported by the :func:`~.qnode` decorator. diff_method (str, None): The method of differentiation to use with the created cost function. Supports all differentiation methods supported by the :func:`~.qnode` decorator. optimize (bool): Whether to optimize the observables composing the Hamiltonian by separating them into qubit-wise commuting groups. Each group can then be executed within a single QNode, resulting in fewer QNodes to evaluate. Returns: callable: a cost function with signature ``cost_fn(params, **kwargs)`` that evaluates the expectation of the Hamiltonian on the provided device(s) .. seealso:: :class:`~.Hamiltonian`, :func:`~.molecular_hamiltonian`, :func:``, :func:`` **Example:** To construct an ``ExpvalCost`` cost function, we require a Hamiltonian to measure, and an ansatz for our variational circuit. We can construct a Hamiltonian manually, .. code-block:: python coeffs = [0.2, -0.543] obs = [ qml.PauliX(0) @ qml.PauliZ(1) @ qml.PauliY(3), qml.PauliZ(0) @ qml.Hadamard(2) ] H = qml.Hamiltonian(coeffs, obs) Alternatively, the :func:`~.molecular_hamiltonian` function from the :doc:`/introduction/chemistry` module can be used to generate a molecular Hamiltonian. Once we have our Hamiltonian, we can select an ansatz and construct the cost function. >>> ansatz = qml.templates.StronglyEntanglingLayers >>> dev = qml.device("default.qubit", wires=4) >>> cost = qml.ExpvalCost(ansatz, H, dev, interface="torch") >>> params = torch.rand([2, 4, 3]) >>> cost(params) tensor(-0.2316, dtype=torch.float64) The cost function can then be minimized using any gradient descent-based :doc:`optimizer </introduction/interfaces>`. .. details:: :title: Usage Details **Optimizing observables:** Setting ``optimize=True`` can be used to decrease the number of device executions. The observables composing the Hamiltonian can be separated into groups that are qubit-wise commuting using the :mod:`~.grouping` module. These groups can be executed together on a *single* qnode, resulting in a lower device overhead: .. code-block:: python commuting_obs = [qml.PauliX(0), qml.PauliX(0) @ qml.PauliZ(1)] H = qml.Hamiltonian([1, 1], commuting_obs) dev = qml.device("default.qubit", wires=2) ansatz = qml.templates.StronglyEntanglingLayers cost_opt = qml.ExpvalCost(ansatz, H, dev, optimize=True) cost_no_opt = qml.ExpvalCost(ansatz, H, dev, optimize=False) shape = qml.templates.StronglyEntanglingLayers.shape(n_layers=3, n_wires=2) params = np.random.random(shape) Grouping these commuting observables leads to fewer device executions: >>> cost_opt(params) >>> ex_opt = dev.num_executions >>> cost_no_opt(params) >>> ex_no_opt = dev.num_executions - ex_opt >>> print("Number of executions:", ex_no_opt) Number of executions: 2 >>> print("Number of executions (optimized):", ex_opt) Number of executions (optimized): 1 """ def __init__( self, ansatz, hamiltonian, device, interface="autograd", diff_method="best", optimize=False, **kwargs, ): warnings.warn( "ExpvalCost is deprecated, use qml.expval() instead. " "For optimizing Hamiltonian measurements with measuring commuting " "terms in parallel, use the grouping_type keyword in qml.Hamiltonian.", UserWarning, ) if kwargs.get("measure", "expval") != "expval": raise ValueError("ExpvalCost can only be used to construct sums of expectation values.") coeffs, observables = hamiltonian.terms() self.hamiltonian = hamiltonian """Hamiltonian: the input Hamiltonian.""" self.qnodes = None """QNodeCollection: The QNodes to be evaluated. Each QNode corresponds to the expectation value of each observable term after applying the circuit ansatz.""" self._multiple_devices = isinstance(device, Sequence) """Bool: Records if multiple devices are input""" if np.isclose(qml.math.toarray(qml.math.count_nonzero(coeffs)), 0): self.cost_fn = lambda *args, **kwargs: np.array(0) return self._optimize = optimize self.qnodes = ansatz, observables, device, interface=interface, diff_method=diff_method, **kwargs ) if self._optimize: if self._multiple_devices: raise ValueError("Using multiple devices is not supported when optimize=True") obs_groupings, coeffs_groupings = qml.grouping.group_observables(observables, coeffs) d = device[0] if self._multiple_devices else device w = d.wires.tolist() @qml.qnode(device, interface=interface, diff_method=diff_method, **kwargs) def circuit(*qnode_args, obs, **qnode_kwargs): """Converting ansatz into a full circuit including measurements""" ansatz(*qnode_args, wires=w, **qnode_kwargs) return [qml.expval(o) for o in obs] def cost_fn(*qnode_args, **qnode_kwargs): """Combine results from grouped QNode executions with grouped coefficients""" if device.shot_vector: shots_batch = sum(i[1] for i in device.shot_vector) total = [0] * shots_batch for o, c in zip(obs_groupings, coeffs_groupings): res = circuit(*qnode_args, obs=o, **qnode_kwargs) for i, batch_res in enumerate(res): total[i] += sum(batch_res * c) else: total = 0 for o, c in zip(obs_groupings, coeffs_groupings): res = circuit(*qnode_args, obs=o, **qnode_kwargs) total += sum(r * c_ for r, c_ in zip(res, c)) return total self.cost_fn = cost_fn else: self.cost_fn =, self.qnodes)
[docs] def __call__(self, *args, **kwargs): return self.cost_fn(*args, **kwargs)
[docs]class VQECost(ExpvalCost): """Create a cost function that gives the expectation value of an input Hamiltonian. .. warning:: Use of :class:`~.VQECost` is deprecated and should be replaced with :class:`~.ExpvalCost`. """ def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs): warnings.warn( "Use of VQECost is deprecated and should be replaced with ExpvalCost", UserWarning, 2, ) super().__init__(*args, **kwargs)