# qml.templates.subroutines.QuantumPhaseEstimation¶

class QuantumPhaseEstimation(unitary, target_wires, estimation_wires, do_queue=True, id=None)[source]

Performs the quantum phase estimation circuit.

Given a unitary matrix $$U$$, this template applies the circuit for quantum phase estimation. The unitary is applied to the qubits specified by target_wires and $$n$$ qubits are used for phase estimation as specified by estimation_wires.

This circuit can be used to perform the standard quantum phase estimation algorithm, consisting of the following steps:

1. Prepare target_wires in a given state. If target_wires are prepared in an eigenstate of $$U$$ that has corresponding eigenvalue $$e^{2 \pi i \theta}$$ with phase $$\theta \in [0, 1)$$, this algorithm will measure $$\theta$$. Other input states can be prepared more generally.

2. Apply the QuantumPhaseEstimation circuit.

3. Measure estimation_wires using probs(), giving a probability distribution over measurement outcomes in the computational basis.

4. Find the index of the largest value in the probability distribution and divide that number by $$2^{n}$$. This number will be an estimate of $$\theta$$ with an error that decreases exponentially with the number of qubits $$n$$.

Note that if $$\theta \in (-1, 0]$$, we can estimate the phase by again finding the index $$i$$ found in step 4 and calculating $$\theta \approx \frac{1 - i}{2^{n}}$$. The usage details below give an example of this case.

Parameters
• unitary (array) – the phase estimation unitary, specified as a matrix

• target_wires (Union[Wires, Sequence[int], or int]) – the target wires to apply the unitary

• estimation_wires (Union[Wires, Sequence[int], or int]) – the wires to be used for phase estimation

Raises

QuantumFunctionError – if the target_wires and estimation_wires share a common element

Consider the matrix corresponding to a rotation from an RX gate:

import pennylane as qml
from pennylane.templates import QuantumPhaseEstimation
from pennylane import numpy as np

phase = 5
target_wires = [0]
unitary = qml.RX(phase, wires=0).matrix


The phase parameter can be estimated using QuantumPhaseEstimation. An example is shown below using a register of five phase-estimation qubits:

n_estimation_wires = 5
estimation_wires = range(1, n_estimation_wires + 1)

dev = qml.device("default.qubit", wires=n_estimation_wires + 1)

@qml.qnode(dev)
def circuit():
# Start in the |+> eigenstate of the unitary

QuantumPhaseEstimation(
unitary,
target_wires=target_wires,
estimation_wires=estimation_wires,
)

return qml.probs(estimation_wires)

phase_estimated = np.argmax(circuit()) / 2 ** n_estimation_wires

# Need to rescale phase due to convention of RX gate
phase_estimated = 4 * np.pi * (1 - phase_estimated)

 base_name Get base name of the operator. basis The basis of an operation, or for controlled gates, of the target operation. control_wires For operations that are controlled, returns the set of control wires. eigvals Eigenvalues of an instantiated operator. generator Generator of the operation. grad_method Gradient computation method. grad_recipe Gradient recipe for the parameter-shift method. hash returns an integer hash uniquely representing the operator id String for the ID of the operator. inverse Boolean determining if the inverse of the operation was requested. is_composable_rotation True if composing multiple copies of the operation results in an addition (or alternative accumulation) of parameters. is_self_inverse True if the operation is its own inverse. is_symmetric_over_all_wires True if the operation is the same if you exchange the order of wires. is_symmetric_over_control_wires True if the operation is the same if you exchange the order of all but the last wire. matrix Matrix representation of an instantiated operator in the computational basis. name Get and set the name of the operator. num_params num_wires par_domain parameters Current parameter values. single_qubit_rot_angles The parameters required to implement a single-qubit gate as an equivalent Rot gate, up to a global phase. string_for_inverse wires Wires of this operator.
base_name

Get base name of the operator.

basis = None

The basis of an operation, or for controlled gates, of the target operation. If not None, should take a value of "X", "Y", or "Z".

For example, X and CNOT have basis = "X", whereas ControlledPhaseShift and RZ have basis = "Z".

Type

str or None

control_wires

For operations that are controlled, returns the set of control wires.

Returns

The set of control wires of the operation.

Return type

Wires

eigvals
generator

Generator of the operation.

A length-2 list [generator, scaling_factor], where

• generator is an existing PennyLane operation class or $$2\times 2$$ Hermitian array that acts as the generator of the current operation

• scaling_factor represents a scaling factor applied to the generator operation

For example, if $$U(\theta)=e^{i0.7\theta \sigma_x}$$, then $$\sigma_x$$, with scaling factor $$s$$, is the generator of operator $$U(\theta)$$:

generator = [PauliX, 0.7]


Default is [None, 1], indicating the operation has no generator.

grad_method

• 'A': analytic differentiation using the parameter-shift method.

• 'F': finite difference numerical differentiation.

• None: the operation may not be differentiated.

Default is 'F', or None if the Operation has zero parameters.

grad_recipe = None

Gradient recipe for the parameter-shift method.

This is a tuple with one nested list per operation parameter. For parameter $$\phi_k$$, the nested list contains elements of the form $$[c_i, a_i, s_i]$$ where $$i$$ is the index of the term, resulting in a gradient recipe of

$\frac{\partial}{\partial\phi_k}f = \sum_{i} c_i f(a_i \phi_k + s_i).$

If None, the default gradient recipe containing the two terms $$[c_0, a_0, s_0]=[1/2, 1, \pi/2]$$ and $$[c_1, a_1, s_1]=[-1/2, 1, -\pi/2]$$ is assumed for every parameter.

Type

tuple(Union(list[list[float]], None)) or None

hash

returns an integer hash uniquely representing the operator

Type

int

id

String for the ID of the operator.

inverse

Boolean determining if the inverse of the operation was requested.

is_composable_rotation = None

True if composing multiple copies of the operation results in an addition (or alternative accumulation) of parameters.

For example, qml.RZ is a composable rotation. Applying qml.RZ(0.1, wires=0) followed by qml.RZ(0.2, wires=0) is equivalent to performing a single rotation qml.RZ(0.3, wires=0).

If set to None, the operation will be ignored during compilation transforms that merge adjacent rotations.

Type

bool or None

is_self_inverse = None

True if the operation is its own inverse.

If None, all instances of the given operation will be ignored during compilation transforms involving inverse cancellation.

Type

bool or None

is_symmetric_over_all_wires = None

True if the operation is the same if you exchange the order of wires.

For example, qml.CZ(wires=[0, 1]) has the same effect as qml.CZ(wires=[1, 0]) due to symmetry of the operation.

If None, all instances of the operation will be ignored during compilation transforms that check for wire symmetry.

Type

bool or None

is_symmetric_over_control_wires = None

True if the operation is the same if you exchange the order of all but the last wire.

For example, qml.Toffoli(wires=[0, 1, 2]) has the same effect as qml.Toffoli(wires=[1, 0, 2]), but neither are the same as qml.Toffoli(wires=[0, 2, 1]).

If None, all instances of the operation will be ignored during compilation transforms that check for control-wire symmetry.

Type

bool or None

matrix
name

Get and set the name of the operator.

num_params = 1
num_wires = -1
par_domain = 'A'
parameters

Current parameter values.

single_qubit_rot_angles

The parameters required to implement a single-qubit gate as an equivalent Rot gate, up to a global phase.

Returns

A list of values $$[\phi, \theta, \omega]$$ such that $$RZ(\omega) RY(\theta) RZ(\phi)$$ is equivalent to the original operation.

Return type

tuple[float, float, float]

string_for_inverse = '.inv'
wires

Wires of this operator.

Returns

wires

Return type

Wires

 adjoint([do_queue]) Create an operation that is the adjoint of this one. decomposition(*params, wires) Returns a template decomposing the operation into other quantum operations. Returns a tape containing the decomposed operations, rather than a list. get_parameter_shift(idx[, shift]) Multiplier and shift for the given parameter, based on its gradient recipe. Inverts the operation, such that the inverse will be used for the computations by the specific device. queue([context]) Append the operator to the Operator queue.
adjoint(do_queue=False)

Create an operation that is the adjoint of this one.

Adjointed operations are the conjugated and transposed version of the original operation. Adjointed ops are equivalent to the inverted operation for unitary gates.

Parameters

do_queue – Whether to add the adjointed gate to the context queue.

Returns

static decomposition(*params, wires)

Returns a template decomposing the operation into other quantum operations.

expand()[source]

Returns a tape containing the decomposed operations, rather than a list.

Returns

Returns a quantum tape that contains the operations decomposition, or if not implemented, simply the operation itself.

Return type

JacobianTape

get_parameter_shift(idx, shift=1.5707963267948966)

Multiplier and shift for the given parameter, based on its gradient recipe.

Parameters

idx (int) – parameter index

Returns

list of multiplier, coefficient, shift for each term in the gradient recipe

Return type

list[[float, float, float]]

inv()

Inverts the operation, such that the inverse will be used for the computations by the specific device.

This method concatenates a string to the name of the operation, to indicate that the inverse will be used for computations.

Any subsequent call of this method will toggle between the original operation and the inverse of the operation.

Returns

operation to be inverted

Return type

Operator

queue(context=<class 'pennylane.queuing.QueuingContext'>)

Append the operator to the Operator queue.