Source code for

# Copyright 2018-2021 Xanadu Quantum Technologies Inc.

# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
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Contains the map function, for mapping templates over observables and devices.
# pylint: disable=too-many-arguments
from import Sequence

import pennylane as qml
from pennylane.operation import Observable

from .qnode_collection import QNodeCollection

MEASURE_MAP = {"expval": qml.expval, "var": qml.var, "sample": qml.sample}

[docs]def map( template, observables, device, measure="expval", interface="autograd", diff_method="best", **kwargs ): """Map a quantum template over a list of observables to create a :class:`QNodeCollection`. The number of QNodes within the created QNode collection will match the number of observables passed. The device and the measurement type will either be applied to all QNodes in the collection, or can be provided as a list for more fine-grained control. Args: template (callable): the ansatz for the circuit before the final measurement step Note that the template **must** have the following signature: .. code-block:: python template(params, wires, **kwargs) where ``params`` are the trainable weights of the variational circuit, ``wires`` is a list of integers representing the wires of the device, and ``kwargs`` are any additional keyword arguments that need to be passed to the template. observables (Iterable[:class:`~.Observable`]): observables to measure during the final step of each circuit device (Device, Sequence[Device]): Corresponding device(s) where the resulting QNodeCollection should be executed. This can either be a single device, or a list of devices of length ``len(observables)``. measure (str, Union(List[str], Tuple[str])): Measurement(s) to perform. Options include :func:`'expval' <pennylane.expval>`, :func:`'var' <pennylane.var>`, and :func:`'sample' <pennylane.sample>`. This can either be a single measurement type, in which case it is applied to all observables, or a list of measurements of length ``len(observables)``. interface (str, None): which interface to use for the returned QNode collection. This affects the types of objects that can be passed to/returned from the QNode. Supports all interfaces supported by the :func:`~.qnode` decorator. diff_method (str, None): the method of differentiation to use in the created QNodeCollection. Supports all differentiation methods supported by the :func:`~.qnode` decorator. Returns: QNodeCollection: a collection of QNodes executing the circuit template with the specified measurements **Example:** Let's define a custom two-wire template: .. code-block:: python def my_template(params, wires, **kwargs): qml.RX(params[0], wires=wires[0]) qml.RX(params[1], wires=wires[1]) qml.CNOT(wires=wires) We want to compute the expectation values over the following list of two-qubit observables: >>> obs_list = [qml.PauliX(0) @ qml.PauliZ(1), qml.PauliZ(0) @ qml.PauliX(1)] This can be easily done with the ``map`` function: >>> dev = qml.device("default.qubit", wires=2) >>> qnodes =, obs_list, dev, measure="expval") The returned :class:`~.QNodeCollection` can be evaluated, returning the results from each mapped QNode as an array: >>> params = [0.54, 0.12] >>> qnodes(params) array([-0.06154835 0.99280864]) """ if not callable(template): raise ValueError("Could not create QNodes. The template is not a callable function.") qnodes = QNodeCollection() if not isinstance(device, Sequence): # broadcast the single device over all observables device = [device] * len(observables) if not isinstance(measure, (list, tuple)): # broadcast the single measurement over all observables measure = [measure] * len(observables) for obs, m, dev in zip(observables, measure, device): # Generate QNodes from all pairs of observables, measurements, and devices. if not isinstance(obs, Observable): raise ValueError("Could not create QNodes. Some or all observables are not valid.") # Need to convert wires to a list, because # the torch/tf interface complains about Wires objects being fed to qnodes # TODO: Allow for Wires argument to be passed through here wires = dev.wires.tolist() # Note: in the following template definition, we pass the observable, measurement, # and wires as *default arguments* to named parameters. This is to avoid # Python's late binding closure behaviour # (see def circuit( params, _obs=obs, _m=m, _wires=wires, **circuit_kwargs ): # pylint: disable=dangerous-default-value, function-redefined template(params, wires=_wires, **circuit_kwargs) return MEASURE_MAP[_m](_obs) qnode = qml.QNode(circuit, dev, interface=interface, diff_method=diff_method, **kwargs) qnodes.append(qnode) return qnodes