Source code for pennylane.devices.default_qubit_autograd

# Copyright 2018-2020 Xanadu Quantum Technologies Inc.

# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
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"""This module contains an autograd implementation of the :class:`~.DefaultQubit`
reference plugin.
from pennylane.operation import DiagonalOperation
from pennylane import numpy as np

from pennylane.devices import DefaultQubit
from pennylane.devices import autograd_ops

[docs]class DefaultQubitAutograd(DefaultQubit): """Simulator plugin based on ``"default.qubit"``, written using Autograd. **Short name:** ``default.qubit.autograd`` This device provides a pure-state qubit simulator written using Autograd. As a result, it supports classical backpropagation as a means to compute the gradient. This can be faster than the parameter-shift rule for analytic quantum gradients when the number of parameters to be optimized is large. To use this device, you will need to install Autograd: .. code-block:: console pip install autograd **Example** The ``default.qubit.autograd`` is designed to be used with end-to-end classical backpropagation (``diff_method="backprop"``) with the Autograd interface. This is the default method of differentiation when creating a QNode with this device. Using this method, the created QNode is a 'white-box', and is tightly integrated with your Autograd computation: >>> dev = qml.device("default.qubit.autograd", wires=1) >>> @qml.qnode(dev, interface="autograd", diff_method="backprop") ... def circuit(x): ... qml.RX(x[1], wires=0) ... qml.Rot(x[0], x[1], x[2], wires=0) ... return qml.expval(qml.PauliZ(0)) >>> weights = np.array([0.2, 0.5, 0.1]) >>> grad_fn = qml.grad(circuit) >>> print(grad_fn(weights)) array([-2.2526717e-01 -1.0086454e+00 1.3877788e-17]) There are a couple of things to keep in mind when using the ``"backprop"`` differentiation method for QNodes: * You must use the ``"autograd"`` interface for classical backpropagation, as Autograd is used as the device backend. * Only exact expectation values, variances, and probabilities are differentiable. When instantiating the device with ``analytic=False``, differentiating QNode outputs will result in an error. Args: wires (int): the number of wires to initialize the device with shots (int): How many times the circuit should be evaluated (or sampled) to estimate the expectation values. Defaults to 1000 if not specified. If ``analytic == True``, then the number of shots is ignored in the calculation of expectation values and variances, and only controls the number of samples returned by ``sample``. analytic (bool): Indicates if the device should calculate expectations and variances analytically. In non-analytic mode, the ``diff_method="backprop"`` QNode differentiation method is not supported and it is recommended to consider switching device to ``default.qubit`` and using ``diff_method="parameter-shift"``. """ name = "Default qubit (Autograd) PennyLane plugin" short_name = "default.qubit.autograd" parametric_ops = { "PhaseShift": autograd_ops.PhaseShift, "RX": autograd_ops.RX, "RY": autograd_ops.RY, "RZ": autograd_ops.RZ, "Rot": autograd_ops.Rot, "CRX": autograd_ops.CRX, "CRY": autograd_ops.CRY, "CRZ": autograd_ops.CRZ, "MultiRZ": autograd_ops.MultiRZ, } C_DTYPE = np.complex128 R_DTYPE = np.float64 _asarray = staticmethod(np.tensor) _dot = staticmethod( _abs = staticmethod(np.abs) _reduce_sum = staticmethod(lambda array, axes: np.sum(array, axis=tuple(axes))) _reshape = staticmethod(np.reshape) _flatten = staticmethod(lambda array: array.flatten()) _gather = staticmethod(lambda array, indices: array[indices]) _einsum = staticmethod(np.einsum) _cast = staticmethod(np.tensor) _transpose = staticmethod(np.transpose) _tensordot = staticmethod(np.tensordot) _conj = staticmethod(np.conj) _imag = staticmethod(np.imag) _roll = staticmethod(np.roll) _stack = staticmethod(np.stack) def __init__(self, wires, *, shots=1000, analytic=True): super().__init__(wires, shots=shots, analytic=analytic, cache=0) # prevent using special apply methods for these gates due to slowdown in Autograd # implementation del self._apply_ops["PauliY"] del self._apply_ops["Hadamard"] del self._apply_ops["CZ"]
[docs] @classmethod def capabilities(cls): capabilities = super().capabilities().copy() capabilities.update( passthru_interface="autograd", supports_reversible_diff=False, ) return capabilities
@staticmethod def _scatter(indices, array, new_dimensions): new_array = np.zeros(new_dimensions, dtype=array.dtype.type) new_array[indices] = array return new_array def _get_unitary_matrix(self, unitary): """Return the matrix representing a unitary operation. Args: unitary (~.Operation): a PennyLane unitary operation Returns: array[complex]: Returns a 2D matrix representation of the unitary in the computational basis, or, in the case of a diagonal unitary, a 1D array representing the matrix diagonal. """ op_name = if op_name in self.parametric_ops: if op_name == "MultiRZ": return self.parametric_ops[](*unitary.parameters, len(unitary.wires)) return self.parametric_ops[](*unitary.parameters) if isinstance(unitary, DiagonalOperation): return unitary.eigvals return unitary.matrix