Source code for pennylane.templates.embeddings.amplitude

# Copyright 2018-2021 Xanadu Quantum Technologies Inc.

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Contains the AmplitudeEmbedding template.
# pylint: disable-msg=too-many-branches,too-many-arguments,protected-access
import warnings
import numpy as np

import pennylane as qml
from pennylane.operation import Operation, AnyWires
from pennylane.ops import QubitStateVector
from pennylane.wires import Wires

# tolerance for normalization

[docs]class AmplitudeEmbedding(Operation): r"""Encodes :math:`2^n` features into the amplitude vector of :math:`n` qubits. By setting ``pad_with`` to a real or complex number, ``features`` is automatically padded to dimension :math:`2^n` where :math:`n` is the number of qubits used in the embedding. To represent a valid quantum state vector, the L2-norm of ``features`` must be one. The argument ``normalize`` can be set to ``True`` to automatically normalize the features. If both automatic padding and normalization are used, padding is executed *before* normalizing. .. note:: On some devices, ``AmplitudeEmbedding`` must be the first operation of a quantum circuit. .. warning:: At the moment, the ``features`` argument is **not differentiable** when using the template, and gradients with respect to the features cannot be computed by PennyLane. Args: features (tensor_like): input tensor of dimension ``(2^n,)``, or less if `pad_with` is specified wires (Iterable): wires that the template acts on pad_with (float or complex): if not None, the input is padded with this constant to size :math:`2^n` normalize (bool): whether to automatically normalize the features pad (float or complex): same as `pad`, to be deprecated Example: Amplitude embedding encodes a normalized :math:`2^n`-dimensional feature vector into the state of :math:`n` qubits: .. code-block:: python import pennylane as qml from pennylane.templates import AmplitudeEmbedding dev = qml.device('default.qubit', wires=2) @qml.qnode(dev) def circuit(f=None): AmplitudeEmbedding(features=f, wires=range(2)) return qml.expval(qml.PauliZ(0)) circuit(f=[1/2, 1/2, 1/2, 1/2]) The final state of the device is - up to a global phase - equivalent to the input passed to the circuit: >>> dev.state [0.5+0.j 0.5+0.j 0.5+0.j 0.5+0.j] **Differentiating with respect to the features** Due to non-trivial classical processing to construct the state preparation circuit, the features argument is in general **not differentiable**. **Normalization** The template will raise an error if the feature input is not normalized. One can set ``normalize=True`` to automatically normalize it: .. code-block:: python @qml.qnode(dev) def circuit(f=None): AmplitudeEmbedding(features=f, wires=range(2), normalize=True) return qml.expval(qml.PauliZ(0)) circuit(f=[15, 15, 15, 15]) >>> dev.state [0.5 + 0.j, 0.5 + 0.j, 0.5 + 0.j, 0.5 + 0.j] **Padding** If the dimension of the feature vector is smaller than the number of amplitudes, one can automatically pad it with a constant for the missing dimensions using the ``pad_with`` option: .. code-block:: python from math import sqrt @qml.qnode(dev) def circuit(f=None): AmplitudeEmbedding(features=f, wires=range(2), pad_with=0.) return qml.expval(qml.PauliZ(0)) circuit(f=[1/sqrt(2), 1/sqrt(2)]) >>> dev.state [0.70710678 + 0.j, 0.70710678 + 0.j, 0.0 + 0.j, 0.0 + 0.j] """ num_params = 1 num_wires = AnyWires par_domain = "A" def __init__( self, features, wires, pad_with=None, normalize=False, pad=None, do_queue=True, id=None ): # pad is replaced with the more verbose pad_with if pad is not None: warnings.warn( "The pad argument will be replaced by the pad_with option in future versions of PennyLane.", UserWarning, ) if pad_with is None: pad_with = pad wires = Wires(wires) self.pad_with = pad_with self.normalize = normalize features = self._preprocess(features, wires, pad_with, normalize) super().__init__(features, wires=wires, do_queue=do_queue, id=id)
[docs] def adjoint(self): # pylint: disable=arguments-differ return qml.adjoint(qml.templates.MottonenStatePreparation)( self.parameters[0], wires=self.wires )
[docs] def expand(self): with qml.tape.QuantumTape() as tape: QubitStateVector(self.parameters[0], wires=self.wires) return tape
@staticmethod def _preprocess(features, wires, pad_with, normalize): """Validate and pre-process inputs as follows: * Check that the features tensor is one-dimensional. * If pad_with is None, check that the first dimension of the features tensor has length :math:`2^n` where :math:`n` is the number of qubits. Else check that the first dimension of the features tensor is not larger than :math:`2^n` and pad features with value if necessary. * If normalize is false, check that first dimension of features is normalised to one. Else, normalise the features tensor. """ shape = qml.math.shape(features) # check shape if len(shape) != 1: raise ValueError(f"Features must be a one-dimensional tensor; got shape {shape}.") n_features = shape[0] if pad_with is None and n_features != 2 ** len(wires): raise ValueError( f"Features must be of length {2 ** len(wires)}; got length {n_features}. " f"Use the 'pad' argument for automated padding." ) if pad_with is not None and n_features > 2 ** len(wires): raise ValueError( f"Features must be of length {2 ** len(wires)} or " f"smaller to be padded; got length {n_features}." ) # pad if pad_with is not None and n_features < 2 ** len(wires): padding = [pad_with] * (2 ** len(wires) - n_features) features = qml.math.concatenate([features, padding], axis=0) # normalize norm = qml.math.sum(qml.math.abs(features) ** 2) if not qml.math.allclose(norm, 1.0, atol=TOLERANCE): if normalize or pad_with: features = features / np.sqrt(norm) else: raise ValueError( f"Features must be a vector of length 1.0; got length {norm}." "Use 'normalize=True' to automatically normalize." ) features = qml.math.cast(features, np.complex128) return features