Source code for pennylane.templates.subroutines.arbitrary_unitary

# Copyright 2018-2021 Xanadu Quantum Technologies Inc.

# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
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#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

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r"""
Contains the ArbitraryUnitary template.
"""
import pennylane as qml
from pennylane.operation import Operation, AnyWires
from pennylane.ops import PauliRot

_PAULIS = ["I", "X", "Y", "Z"]


def _tuple_to_word(index_tuple):
    """Convert an integer tuple to the corresponding Pauli word.

    The Pauli operators are converted as ``0 -> I``, ``1 -> X``,
    ``2 -> Y``, ``3 -> Z``.

    Args:
        index_tuple (Tuple[int]): An integer tuple describing the Pauli word

    Returns:
        str: The corresponding Pauli word
    """
    return "".join([_PAULIS[i] for i in index_tuple])


def _n_k_gray_code(n, k, start=0):
    """Iterates over a full n-ary Gray code with k digits.

    Args:
        n (int): Base of the Gray code. Needs to be greater than one.
        k (int): Number of digits of the Gray code. Needs to be greater than zero.
        start (int, optional): Optional start of the Gray code. The generated code
            will be shorter as the code does not wrap. Defaults to 0.
    """
    for i in range(start, n ** k):
        codeword = [0] * k

        base_repesentation = []
        val = i

        for j in range(k):
            base_repesentation.append(val % n)
            val //= n

        shift = 0
        for j in reversed(range(k)):
            codeword[j] = (base_repesentation[j] + shift) % n
            shift += n - codeword[j]

        yield codeword


def _all_pauli_words_but_identity(num_wires):
    # Start at 1 to ignore identity
    yield from (_tuple_to_word(idx_tuple) for idx_tuple in _n_k_gray_code(4, num_wires, start=1))


[docs]class ArbitraryUnitary(Operation): """Implements an arbitrary unitary on the specified wires. An arbitrary unitary on :math:`n` wires is parametrized by :math:`4^n - 1` independent real parameters. This templates uses Pauli word rotations to parametrize the unitary. **Example** ArbitraryUnitary can be used as a building block, e.g. to parametrize arbitrary two-qubit operations in a circuit: .. code-block:: python @qml.template def arbitrary_nearest_neighbour_interaction(weights, wires): qml.broadcast(unitary=ArbitraryUnitary, pattern="double", wires=wires, params=weights) Args: weights (tensor_like): The angles of the Pauli word rotations, needs to have length :math:`4^n - 1` where :math:`n` is the number of wires the template acts upon. wires (Iterable): wires that the template acts on """ num_params = 1 num_wires = AnyWires par_domain = "A" def __init__(self, weights, wires, do_queue=True, id=None): shape = qml.math.shape(weights) if shape != (4 ** len(wires) - 1,): raise ValueError( f"Weights tensor must be of shape {(4 ** len(wires) - 1,)}; got {shape}." ) super().__init__(weights, wires=wires, do_queue=do_queue, id=id)
[docs] def expand(self): weights = self.parameters[0] with qml.tape.QuantumTape() as tape: for i, pauli_word in enumerate(_all_pauli_words_but_identity(len(self.wires))): PauliRot(weights[i], pauli_word, wires=self.wires) return tape
[docs] @staticmethod def shape(n_wires): """Compute the expected shape of the weights tensor. Args: n_wires (int): number of wires that template acts on """ return (4 ** n_wires - 1,)