Source code for pennylane.templates.subroutines.single_excitation_unitary

# Copyright 2018-2021 Xanadu Quantum Technologies Inc.

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r"""
Contains the SingleExcitationUnitary template.
"""
# pylint: disable-msg=too-many-branches,too-many-arguments,protected-access
import pennylane as qml
from pennylane import numpy as np
from pennylane.operation import Operation, AnyWires
from pennylane.ops import RZ, RX, CNOT, Hadamard


[docs]class SingleExcitationUnitary(Operation): r"""Circuit to exponentiate the tensor product of Pauli matrices representing the single-excitation operator entering the Unitary Coupled-Cluster Singles and Doubles (UCCSD) ansatz. UCCSD is a VQE ansatz commonly used to run quantum chemistry simulations. The CC single-excitation operator is given by .. math:: \hat{U}_{pr}(\theta) = \mathrm{exp} \{ \theta_{pr} (\hat{c}_p^\dagger \hat{c}_r -\mathrm{H.c.}) \}, where :math:`\hat{c}` and :math:`\hat{c}^\dagger` are the fermionic annihilation and creation operators and the indices :math:`r` and :math:`p` run over the occupied and unoccupied molecular orbitals, respectively. Using the `Jordan-Wigner transformation <https://arxiv.org/abs/1208.5986>`_ the fermionic operator defined above can be written in terms of Pauli matrices (for more details see `arXiv:1805.04340 <https://arxiv.org/abs/1805.04340>`_). .. math:: \hat{U}_{pr}(\theta) = \mathrm{exp} \Big\{ \frac{i\theta}{2} \bigotimes_{a=r+1}^{p-1}\hat{Z}_a (\hat{Y}_r \hat{X}_p) \Big\} \mathrm{exp} \Big\{ -\frac{i\theta}{2} \bigotimes_{a=r+1}^{p-1} \hat{Z}_a (\hat{X}_r \hat{Y}_p) \Big\}. The quantum circuit to exponentiate the tensor product of Pauli matrices entering the latter equation is shown below (see `arXiv:1805.04340 <https://arxiv.org/abs/1805.04340>`_): | .. figure:: ../../_static/templates/subroutines/single_excitation_unitary.png :align: center :width: 60% :target: javascript:void(0); | As explained in `Seely et al. (2012) <https://arxiv.org/abs/1208.5986>`_, the exponential of a tensor product of Pauli-Z operators can be decomposed in terms of :math:`2(n-1)` CNOT gates and a single-qubit Z-rotation referred to as :math:`U_\theta` in the figure above. If there are :math:`X` or :math:`Y` Pauli matrices in the product, the Hadamard (:math:`H`) or :math:`R_x` gate has to be applied to change to the :math:`X` or :math:`Y` basis, respectively. The latter operations are denoted as :math:`U_1` and :math:`U_2` in the figure above. See the Usage Details section for more information. Args: weight (float): angle :math:`\theta` entering the Z rotation acting on wire ``p`` wires (Iterable): Wires that the template acts on. The wires represent the subset of orbitals in the interval ``[r, p]``. Must be of minimum length 2. The first wire is interpreted as ``r`` and the last wire as ``p``. Wires in between are acted on with CNOT gates to compute the parity of the set of qubits. .. UsageDetails:: Notice that: #. :math:`\hat{U}_{pr}(\theta)` involves two exponentiations where :math:`\hat{U}_1`, :math:`\hat{U}_2`, and :math:`\hat{U}_\theta` are defined as follows, .. math:: [U_1, U_2, U_{\theta}] = \Bigg\{\bigg[R_x(-\pi/2), H, R_z(\theta/2)\bigg], \bigg[H, R_x(-\frac{\pi}{2}), R_z(-\theta/2) \bigg] \Bigg\} #. For a given pair ``[r, p]``, ten single-qubit and ``4*(len(wires)-1)`` CNOT operations are applied. Notice also that CNOT gates act only on qubits ``wires[1]`` to ``wires[-2]``. The operations performed across these qubits are shown in dashed lines in the figure above. An example of how to use this template is shown below: .. code-block:: python import pennylane as qml from pennylane.templates import SingleExcitationUnitary dev = qml.device('default.qubit', wires=3) @qml.qnode(dev) def circuit(weight, wires=None): SingleExcitationUnitary(weight, wires=wires) return qml.expval(qml.PauliZ(0)) weight = 0.56 print(circuit(weight, wires=[0, 1, 2])) """ num_params = 1 num_wires = AnyWires par_domain = "A" def __init__(self, weight, wires=None, do_queue=True): if len(wires) < 2: raise ValueError("expected at least two wires; got {}".format(len(wires))) shape = qml.math.shape(weight) if shape != (): raise ValueError(f"Weight must be a scalar tensor {()}; got shape {shape}.") super().__init__(weight, wires=wires, do_queue=do_queue)
[docs] def expand(self): weight = self.parameters[0] # Interpret first and last wire as r and p r = self.wires[0] p = self.wires[-1] # Sequence of the wires entering the CNOTs between wires 'r' and 'p' set_cnot_wires = [self.wires[l : l + 2] for l in range(len(self.wires) - 1)] with qml.tape.QuantumTape() as tape: # ------------------------------------------------------------------ # Apply the first layer # U_1, U_2 acting on wires 'r' and 'p' RX(-np.pi / 2, wires=r) Hadamard(wires=p) # Applying CNOTs between wires 'r' and 'p' for cnot_wires in set_cnot_wires: CNOT(wires=cnot_wires) # Z rotation acting on wire 'p' RZ(weight / 2, wires=p) # Applying CNOTs in reverse order for cnot_wires in reversed(set_cnot_wires): CNOT(wires=cnot_wires) # U_1^+, U_2^+ acting on wires 'r' and 'p' RX(np.pi / 2, wires=r) Hadamard(wires=p) # ------------------------------------------------------------------ # Apply the second layer # U_1, U_2 acting on wires 'r' and 'p' Hadamard(wires=r) RX(-np.pi / 2, wires=p) # Applying CNOTs between wires 'r' and 'p' for cnot_wires in set_cnot_wires: CNOT(wires=cnot_wires) # Z rotation acting on wire 'p' RZ(-weight / 2, wires=p) # Applying CNOTs in reverse order for cnot_wires in reversed(set_cnot_wires): CNOT(wires=cnot_wires) # U_1^+, U_2^+ acting on wires 'r' and 'p' Hadamard(wires=r) RX(np.pi / 2, wires=p) return tape