Source code for pennylane.templates.subroutines.grover

# Copyright 2018-2021 Xanadu Quantum Technologies Inc.

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"""
Contains the Grover Operation template.
"""
import itertools
import functools
import numpy as np
import pennylane as qml
from pennylane.operation import AnyWires, Operation
from pennylane.ops import Hadamard, PauliZ, MultiControlledX


[docs]class GroverOperator(Operation): r"""Performs the Grover Diffusion Operator. .. math:: G = 2 |s \rangle \langle s | - I = H^{\bigotimes n} \left( 2 |0\rangle \langle 0| - I \right) H^{\bigotimes n} where :math:`n` is the number of wires, and :math:`|s\rangle` is the uniform superposition: .. math:: |s\rangle = H^{\bigotimes n} |0\rangle = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2^n}} \sum_{i=0}^{2^n-1} | i \rangle. For this template, the operator is implemented with a layer of Hadamards, a layer of :math:`X`, followed by a multi-controlled :math:`Z` gate, then another layer of :math:`X` and Hadamards. This is expressed in a compact form by the circuit below: .. figure:: ../../_static/templates/subroutines/grover.svg :align: center :width: 60% :target: javascript:void(0); The open circles on the controlled gate indicate control on 0 instead of 1. The ``Z`` gates on the last wire result from leveraging the circuit identity :math:`HXH = Z`, where the last ``H`` gate converts the multi-controlled :math:`Z` gate into a multi-controlled :math:`X` gate. Args: wires (Union[Wires, Sequence[int], or int]): the wires to apply to work_wires (Union[Wires, Sequence[int], or int]): optional auxiliary wires to assist in the decomposition of :class:`~.MultiControlledX`. **Example** The Grover Diffusion Operator amplifies the magnitude of the basis state with a negative phase. For example, if the solution to the search problem is the :math:`|111\rangle` state, we require an oracle that flips its phase; this could be implemented using a `CCZ` gate: .. code-block:: python n_wires = 3 wires = list(range(n_wires)) def oracle(): qml.Hadamard(wires[-1]) qml.Toffoli(wires=wires) qml.Hadamard(wires[-1]) We can then implement the entire Grover Search Algorithm for ``num_iterations`` iterations by alternating calls to the oracle and the diffusion operator: .. code-block:: python dev = qml.device('default.qubit', wires=wires) @qml.qnode(dev) def GroverSearch(num_iterations=1): for wire in wires: qml.Hadamard(wire) for _ in range(num_iterations): oracle() qml.templates.GroverOperator(wires=wires) return qml.probs(wires) >>> GroverSearch(num_iterations=1) tensor([0.03125, 0.03125, 0.03125, 0.03125, 0.03125, 0.03125, 0.03125, 0.78125], requires_grad=True) >>> GroverSearch(num_iterations=2) tensor([0.0078125, 0.0078125, 0.0078125, 0.0078125, 0.0078125, 0.0078125, 0.0078125, 0.9453125], requires_grad=True) We can see that the marked :math:`|111\rangle` state has the greatest probability amplitude. Optimally, the oracle-operator pairing should be repeated :math:`\lceil \frac{\pi}{4}\sqrt{2^{n}} \rceil` times. """ num_params = 0 num_wires = AnyWires par_domain = None def __init__(self, wires=None, work_wires=None, do_queue=True, id=None): if (not hasattr(wires, "__len__")) or (len(wires) < 2): raise ValueError("GroverOperator must have at least two wires provided.") self.work_wires = work_wires super().__init__(wires=wires, do_queue=do_queue, id=id)
[docs] def expand(self): ctrl_str = "0" * (len(self.wires) - 1) with qml.tape.QuantumTape() as tape: for wire in self.wires[:-1]: Hadamard(wire) PauliZ(self.wires[-1]) MultiControlledX( control_values=ctrl_str, control_wires=self.wires[:-1], wires=self.wires[-1], work_wires=self.work_wires, ) PauliZ(self.wires[-1]) for wire in self.wires[:-1]: Hadamard(wire) return tape
@property def matrix(self): # Redefine the property here to allow for a custom _matrix signature mat = self._matrix(len(self.wires)) return mat @classmethod def _matrix(cls, *params): num_wires = params[0] # s1 = H|0>, Hadamard on a single qubit in the ground state s1 = np.array([1, 1]) / np.sqrt(2) # uniform superposition state |s> s = functools.reduce(np.kron, list(itertools.repeat(s1, num_wires))) # Grover diffusion operator G = 2 * np.outer(s, s) - np.identity(2 ** num_wires) return G